Intangible Assets

What are intangible assets? – Definition Intangible assets are those assets which have no physical substance but have future economic benefits based on rights or benefits accruing to the asset’s owner. Explanation Intangible assets are noncurrent assets that have no physical properties. They generate revenues because they offer a firm value in future revenue production …

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Assets

Learning Objectives: What are assets in accounting? Types of Assets Classification of Assets Definition of Assets Properties, things and receivables having certain values owned by the business are called assets. Examples Following are some examples of assets. Cash, Debtors, Stock, Accounts Receivable, Prepaid Expenses, Land, Building, Plant, Machinery, Motor Vehicles, Furniture, Fixture, Goodwill, Patents, Copy …

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Operating Assets

Operating Assets – Definition The term operating assets is used to identify the broad category of long-lived assets that are used to produce goods or services. This group includes not only tangible assets (often known as property, plant, and equipment or fixed assets) but also those that exist only as intangible rights (such as trademarks, …

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Accounting for asset exchange

Below is the summary of accounting for asset exchange: Cost of new asset The recorded cost of the new asset cannot exceed the fair value of the new asset. Cash given Fair value of old asset plus cash. Lower of book value of old asset plus cash or fair value of old asset plus cash. …

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Exchange of similar nonmonetary operating assets

Although some accountants believe exchanges of similar assets should be treated the same as exchanges of dissimilar ones, GAAP treat these transactions as being substantively different. That is, the exchange is viewed as a restructuring of the firm’s productive capacity rather than a disposal and acquisition. Consequently, GAAP prescribe a treatment for these exchanges that …

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What are identifiable and unidentifiable intangible assets?

Definition Identifiable intangibles are assets that are derived from a specific right or ability. Most of them are created by registration with government authority or by contract. Types Some major types of identifiable intangible assets are listed below: Patent—unique right to manufacture a product or to use a process; protected by a legal authority for …

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Costs subsequent to acquisition

Most operating assets require expenditures to repair, maintain, or improve them. These subsequent costs can pose accounting problems if they are material in amount or significantly affect the asset’s service life. In general terms, the accountant faces the choice between capitalizing the expenditure by increasing the asset’s book value or expensing it in the year …

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Acquisition of multiple assets together

Definition and explanation Because almost every type of asset can be viewed as a set of components, there are few situations in which a single “asset” is acquired. In many (if not most) cases, this fact is ignored because the components are either permanently joined together, share the same useful life, or information about the …

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Acquisition of assets in exchange of stock

Explanation A corporation may issue stock in exchange for an operating asset(tangible and intangible). There are two approaches for determining the cost of an asset obtained in this type of acquisition. The first approach uses the value given up by the firm to determine the cost of the asset. This amount constitutes the value foregone by …

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Receipt of donated assets

On occasion, companies acquire assets without significant cost through the donation of land or buildings. For example, a local government unit may make the donation in order to influence the recipient to establish operations in the area and thereby contribute to the local economy. Two possibilities can be considered for determining the amount to debit …

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Capitalization of interest cost during the construction of assets

Most accountants treated the acquisition of an asset and the obtaining of funds to pay for the acquisition as separate and unrelated events. GAAP departs from that convention only in terms of interest incurred while the asset is under construction and excludes interest incurred during its useful life. That is, interest incurred in preparing the …

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Self-constructed assets

Definition and explanation A manufacturing company may decide to construct an asset for its own use rather than purchase it from another source. Two financial accounting issues must be considered in dealing with this situation: (a) identification of cost and (b) treatment of costs in excess of the purchase price. In associating costs with the …

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Accounting for acquisitions of intangible assets

In determining how to account for an intangible asset, the first question to answer is whether there is sufficient proof that it actually exists. The primary evidence that should be sought is documentation of either legal protection or a contract. Secondary evidence is provided by cash inflows created by the asset. In this latter situation, …

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Goodwill

What is Goodwill? – Definition Goodwill is the future benefits that accrue to a firm as a result of its ability to earn an excess rate of return on its recorded net assets. Explanation Goodwill is reported in financial statements only if its valuation can be supported by a transaction involving the purchase of a …

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Accounting objectives for the use and disposal of operating assets

The usefulness of most operating assets is consumed as they are applied to the production of goods or the providing of services. This consumption is known as either depreciation, depletion, or amortization, according to the type of asset that is being used. The actual processes of the consumption are dependent upon a number of factors, …

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Depreciation methods of operating assets

Explanation In making a determination of how much depreciation to assign to given periods, accountants should select a depreciation method that mirrors the pattern of the loss of the asset’s usefulness. The chosen method should allocate the asset’s cost “as equitably as possible to the periods during which services are obtained from [its] use.” The …

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units of production method of depreciation

What is the units of production method? – Definition Units of production method is a method of depreciation that assumes that the primary depreciation factor is used rather than the passage of time, and is appropriate for such assets as delivery trucks and equipment when substantial variation in use occurs. Explanation If it is economically …

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What is depreciable basis?

Depreciable Basis Definition Depreciable Basis is the assets acquisition cost, less its estimated residual value. Explanation The total amount of depreciation to be taken in an asset’s life is called its depreciable basis. The amount is the difference between the value of the asset at the beginning of its life (cost) and its estimated value at …

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Straight-line method of assets depreciation

What is the straight-line depreciation method? Straight-line depreciation is the simplest of the various depreciation methods. Under this method, yearly depreciation is calculated by dividing an asset’s depreciable cost by its estimated useful life. By far the most easily understood and widely used depreciation method is straight-line, under which an equal amount of depreciation is …

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Declining balance method of assets depreciation

What is the declining balance method of assets depreciation – Definition Under the declining balance method, depreciation is charged on the book value of the asset, and the amount of depreciation goes on decreasing every year. or An accelerated method of assets depreciation in which the asset’s book value at the beginning of each ledger …

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Partial year’s depreciation

Explanation Because operating assets are purchased and retired throughout the year, the firm faces the problem of determining how much depreciation expense to record for the part of the year that each acquired or retired asset is actually used. The basic principle holds that the company should adopt a convention for computing the partial year’s …

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Depreciation and changes in estimates and method

Because of the estimates and judgments involved in computing depreciation (as well as amortization and depletion), it is inevitable that facts in subsequent years will show that some of the original projections and assumptions were incorrect. Changes in service life If the originally selected service life of an asset turns out to be sufficiently incorrect …

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Composite depreciation

Explanation The effort of calculating depreciation expense for a large collection of assets often can be reduced without sacrificing a material amount of accuracy by aggregating the assets and treating them as if they are a single asset. The group approach to aggregation is applied to collections of assets that share similar service lives and …

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Amortization of intangible assets

What is meant by the Amortization of Intangible assets? – Definition Amortization is the periodic allocation of the cost of an intangible asset over its useful life. Explanation Amortization expense for intangible assets is based on the same concepts as depreciation. However, the process for selecting useful lives and allocation methods is more diffcult because …

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Depletion

What is meant by Depletion? – Definition Depletion is the process in which natural resources lose their benefits as the resources are removed. It follows the same process as units of production depreciation. Explanation The cost of natural resources extracted by a firm from property is known as depletion and is based on the same concepts …

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Operating assets and problems under cost allocation approach

Depreciation is based on the cost allocation concept because of the unreliability of interim measures of value. This use of an approximation causes several problems, four of which are discussed below. Actual life exceeds estimated life Because depreciation allocates the full amount of the depreciable base over an estimated life, it is fairly common to …

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Disposal of operating assets

Explanation When accounting for the disposal of operating assets, the firm should record a gain or loss for the difference between the net salvage proceeds and the asset’s book value as of the disposal date. It should be noted that any gain or loss from disposing of an asset is only an adjustment to income …

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Assets, casual losses and insurance

Insurance policies covering losses of property are an integral part of most firm’s risk management. Some understanding of the basic features of insurance is thus essential to the accountant’s education. This article focuses on the effect of minimum coverage clauses of casualty insurance. Generally, policies insuring against losses caused by such things as fire, theft, …

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